Test facility

Diagnostic techniques

Cross-flow influence

Overall boiling curves

Intermittent cooling efficiency

Heat transfer correlations


Advances in Intermittent Spray Impact Research

micro nano engineering

  Cross-flow influence

Below is the overlapping of Mie scattering images with those provided by the shadowgraphy flow visualization technique. The black area corresponds to liquid droplets and the greyscale area to fuel vapour.

The cross-flow influence derived from observation of these images is:
  • divert the impinging spray in its direction, dragging part of its droplets and consequently inhibiting film formation;
  • enhance secondary atomization.
This influence suggests the beneficial effect of a cross-flow in reducing the emission of pollutants caused by liquid films formed after spray impact.

  • Panão, M.R.O. and Moreira, A.L.N. (2005) “Experimental characterization of an intermittent gasoline spray under cross-flow conditions”, Atomization and Sprays, v.15, pp.201-222.
  • Durão, D.F., Moreira, A.L.N., Panão, M.R.O. (2006) “The effect of a cross-flow on secondary atomization in multipoint fuel injection systems”, 13th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, PORTUGAL [PDF]