Visualization: characterization of droplet morphology (e.g. spreading diameter, crown height and diameters, crown angles) and size and number of large secondary droplets (with diameters between 40mm and few millimetres) are evaluated from post processing of the images recorded using high speed cameras.
Phase Doppler interferometry: is used to determine size and velocity distributions of small secondary droplets (with diameters from 5mm up to 250mm).
Temperature acquisition: thermocouples type K are used to monitor the temperature of the targets. Micro-thermocouples of fast response are embedded in the surfaces at the impact region, to acquire the temperature variation during droplet impaction.
Combination of these techniques allows to fully characterize the fluid dynamic and heat transfer processes occurring during droplet/surface interactions. Combination of image analysis with phase Doppler measurements provides the characterization of secondary dropletsí sizes and velocities, over the full range of diameters observed within all the boiling regimes.